Network infrastructure – Know how


Our technicians design secure computer network structure based on the three factors including Topology, Protocol and Internet:

Structured network cabling and switch consists of number of standardized smaller elements.

Network Cable length

  • Network Equipment Rooms(cabling and switch equipment which serves the users inside the building/home).
  • Telecommunications Rooms/closet (where various telecommunications and data equipment resides/terminates).
  • Linking connections
  • Designing MDF & IDF
    • IDF – Independent/Intermediate Distribution Facility: IDF generally in large buildings where each floor has connections to network. The network drops on each floor connect to the IDF, where you can connect your networking equipment and feed it back to your MDF data centre using Fibre connections. In central office environments the IDF may contain circuit termination equipment from various auxiliary components. In WAN and LAN environments IDFs can hold devices of different types including backupsystems (hard drives or other media as self-contained, or as RAIDs, CD-ROMs, etc.), networking (switches, hubs, routers), and connections (fiber optics, coaxial, category cables) and so on.
    • MDF – Main Distribution Facility: This is where your main data center is and the core of your network management is.

A Typical diagram shows how the MDF & IDF communication/connectivity. Telecommunication closet is nothing but the ISP (Internet Service Provider) termination room

Typical MDF IDF design

Cable length

Network Cable length

  • The Cat-5 Ethernet specification dictates that the maximum length a CAT-5 cable can have is 100 meters.
  • Cat 6: When used for 10/100/1000BASE-T, the maximum allowed length of a Cat 6 cable is 100 meters or 328 feet.
  • In the case you require a cable longer than 100 meters, you need to install a simple repeater I.E. a hub, or a switch, which will allow you to extend the total length.

Network cable length

Switches & Hubs

Hubs and switches


The term ‘hub’ is sometimes used to refer to any piece of network equipment that connects PCs together, but it actually refers to a multi-port repeater. This type of device simply passes on (repeats) all the information it receives, so that all devices connected to its ports receive that information. Hubs repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network. This can result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network (traffic to the network regardless of the intended destination).


Switches control the flow of network traffic based on the address information in each packet. A switch learns which devices are connected to its ports (by monitoring the packets it receives), and then forwards on packets to the appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous communication across the switch, improving bandwidth. This switching operation reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic that would have occurred if the same information had been sent from every port.

What is Power over Ethernet (PoE) Switch?

PoE RJ45 connection

The Power over Ethernet feature — the IEEE 802.3af standard — lets Ethernet cables supply the power for network devices, at the same time as transmitting data in the normal way.

  • Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a technology that lets network cables carry electrical power. For example, a digital security camera normally requires two connections to be made when it is installed:
  • network connection, in order to be able to communicate with video recording and display equipment
  • power connection, to deliver the electrical power the camera needs to operate

However, if the camera is PoE-enabled, only the network connection needs to be made, as it will receive its electrical power from this cable as well.

Specifying Power over Ethernet brings many advantages to an installation:

  • Time and cost savings – by reducing the time and expense of having electrical power cabling installed.  Network cables do not require a qualified electrician to fit them, and can be located anywhere.
  • Flexibility – without being tethered to an electrical outlet, devices such as IP cameras and wireless access points can be located wherever they are needed most, and repositioned easily if required.
  • Safety – PoE delivery is intelligent, and designed to protect network equipment from overload, underpowering, or incorrect installation.
  • Reliability – PoE power comes from a central and universally compatible source, rather than a collection of distributed wall adapters.  It can be backed-up by an uninterruptible power supply, or controlled to easily disable or reset devices.

RJ45 connections

RJ45 connector

RJ45 is a standard type of connector for network cables. RJ45 connectors are most commonly seen with Ethernetcables and networks. The “RJ” in RJ45 stands for “registered jack,” since it is a standardized networking interface. The “45” simply refers to the number of the interface standard.

RJ45 connectors feature eight pins to which the wire strands of a cable interface electrically. Standard RJ-45 pinouts define the arrangement of the individual wires needed when attaching connectors to a cable. Several other kinds of connectors closely resemble RJ45 and can be easily confused for each other. The RJ-11 connectors used with telephone cables, for example, are only slightly smaller (narrower) than RJ-45 connectors.

RJ45 connection codeRJ45 568A  and 568B code

The T-568B wiring scheme is by far the most common, though many devices support the T-568A wiring scheme as well.

T568A and T568B are the two color codes used for wiring eight-position RJ45 modular plugs. Both are allowed under the ANSI/TIA/EIA wiring standards. The only difference between the two color codes is that the orange and green pairs are interchanged. T568A wiring pattern is recognized as the preferred wiring pattern for this standard because it provides backward compatibility to both one pair and two pair USOC wiring schemes.

Network Cables

Coaxial cable: First invented in the 1880s, “coax” was best known as the kind of cable that connected television sets to home antennas. Coaxial cable is also a standard for 10 Mbps Ethernet cables.

When 10 Mbps Ethernet was most popular, during the 1980s and early 1990s, networks typically utilized one of two kinds of coax cable – thinnet (10BASE2 standard) or thicknet (10BASE5). These cables consist of an inner copper wire of varying thickness surrounded by insulation and other shielding. Their stiffness caused network administrators difficulty in installing and maintaining thinnet and thicknet.

Twisted Pair Cables: Twisted pair eventually emerged during the 1990s as the leading cabling standard for Ethernet, starting with 10 Mbps (10BASE-T, also known as Category 3 or Cat3), later followed by improved versions for 100 Mbps (100BASE-TX, Cat5 and Cat5e) and successively higher speeds up to 10 Gbps (10GBASE-T).

Ethernet twisted pair cables contain up to 8 wires wound together in pairs to minimize electromagnetic

Click here to know how to make the network cable.


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